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Recent IIHR Journal Publications

IIHR researchers and students produce hundreds of peer-reviewed journal articles every year.

IIHR researchers and students produce hundreds of peer-reviewed journal articles every year.

IIHR researchers publish hundreds of articles in professional journals each year, as well as a number of books through commercial publishers. This page highlights some of their most recent publications.

  • Hernandez, O.E.; Schnoebelen, D.J.; Papanicolaou, A.N.; and Abban, B. “Coupling Flow with Nutrient Dynamics via BioChemFOAM in the Mississippi River,” Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 2017. Summary: The research introduce a new three-dimensional model called BioChemFOAM to study nutrient dynamics or species transport in aquatic ecosystems that can be adapted to different parameterizations and different hydrodynamic conditions from laminar to turbulent flow.
  • Jones, C.; Kim, S.W.; and Schilling, K. “Use of Continuous Monitoring to Assess Stream Nitrate Flux and Transformation Patterns,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2017 Jan 1, 189, 1:35. Summary: IIHR researchers use continuous nitrate sensors in the IWQIS network to assess how and why nitrate concentrations change within a stream.
  • Schilling, K.E.; Jones, C.S.; Wolter, C.F.; Zhang, Y-K.; Liang, X.; Seeman, A.; Isenhart, T.; Schnoebelen, D.; and Skopec, M. “Variability of Nitrate-N Load Estimation Results Will Make Quantifying Load Reduction Strategies Difficult in Iowa,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, accepted for publication, 2016. Summary: Researchers from several institutions assess nitrate load estimation methods and their practicality for measuring progress toward goals outlined by Iowa’s Nutrient Reduction Strategy.
  • Schilling, K.E.; Jacobson, P.J.; Streeter, M.T.; and Jones, C.S. 2016. “Groundwater Hydrology and Quality in Drained Wetlands of the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa,” Wetlands, 1-13. Summary: Groundwater hydrology and quality is assessed in eight drained wetlands in the prairie pothole region of Iowa.
  • Villarini, G.; Jones, C.S.; and Schilling, K.E. “Soybean Area and Baseflow Driving Nitrate in Iowa’s Raccoon River,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 45, 1949–1959, 2016. Summary: Development of statistical models to describe how nitrate concentrations change over time in the Raccoon River. Results show soybean area and baseflow (river discharge between storm events) to be important drivers of nitrate levels.
  • Villarini G.; Schilling K.E.; and Jones C.S. “Assessing the Relation of USDA Conservation Expenditures to Suspended Sediment Reductions in an Iowa Watershed,” Journal of Environmental Management, 180, 375-83, 2016. Summary: Long-term, high-frequency river sediment data is linked to USDA expenditures on conservation to evaluate how technical and financial assistance to farmers improves water quality.
  • Jones, C.S.; Seeman, A.; Kyveryga, P.; Schilling, K.E.; Kiel, A.; Chan, K-S.; and Wolter, C. “Crop Rotation and Raccoon River Nitrate,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 71, 206-219, 2016. Summary: Long-term tributary dataset, along with farm management data, shows soybean area to be important driver of Raccoon River nitrate. Nitrate levels relatively stable or declining modestly from 1999–2014.
  • Jones, C.S. and Kult, K. “Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 45, 855-865, 2016. Summary: Water monitoring strategies for assessing performance of de-nitrifying woodchip bioreactors, and important practice for the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy.
  • Liang, X.; Schilling, K.; Zhang, Y.K.; and Jones, C. “Co-kriging Estimation of Nitrate-Nitrogen Loads in an Agricultural River,” Water Resources Management, 30, 1771–1784, 2016. Summary: Development of an effective mathematical method (Co-kriging) for estimating daily nitrate loads in a large Midwestern river.
  • Hansen, E.; Chan, K-S.; Jones, C.S.; and Schilling, K.E. “Assessing the Relative Importance of Nitrogen-retention Processes in a Large Reservoir Using Time-series Modeling,” Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 21, 152–169, 2016. Summary: Use of time-series modeling to estimate how much nitrate is retained and removed from the Des Moines River by Saylorville Reservoir.
  • Mishra, K.V.,  W.F. Krajewski, R. Goska, D. Ceynar, B.-C. Seo,  A. Kruger, J. Niemeier, M.B. Galvez, M. Thurai, V.N. Bringi, L. Tolstoy, P. Kucera, W. Petersen, J. Grazioli and A. Pazmany. “Deployment and Performance Analyses of High-resolution Iowa XPOL Radar System During the NASA IFloodS Campaign,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 2, 455–479, 2016. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JHM-D-15-0029.1 Summary: This article presents the data collected and analyzed using the University of Iowa’s X-band weather radars that were part of the spring 2013 Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) field campaign, sponsored by the NASA’s Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission.
  • Renolds, K.N.; Loecke, T.D.; Burgin, A.J.; Davis, C.A.; Riveros-Iregui, D.; Thomas, S.A.; St. Clair, M.A.; and Ward, A.S. “Optimizing Sampling Strategies for Riverine Nitrate Using High-frequency Data in Agricultural Watersheds,” Environmental Science & Technology, May 18, 2016. Summary: Understanding linked hydrologic and biogeochemical processes such as nitrate loading to agricultural streams requires an understanding of the sampling bias and precision of monitoring strategies. Our results suggest that time-interval sampling most efficiently characterized all nitrate parameters, except at coarse frequencies for nitrate flux.
  • Streeter, M.T. and K.E. Schilling. “A Comparison of Soil Properties Observed in Farmed, Restored, and Natural Closed Depressions on the Des Moines Lobe of Iowa,” Catena, 129:39 015–45, 2015. Summary: This study quantified alterations of wetland soils due to artificial drainage by comparing soil properties at farmed, restored, and natural sites in the Des Moines Lobe region of Iowa.
  • Schilling, K.E.; P.J. Jacobson; and J. Vogelgesang. “Agricultural Conversion of Floodplain Ecosystems: Implications for Groundwater Quality,” Journal of Environmental Management, 153:74–83, 2015. Summary: In this study, groundwater hydrology and nutrient dynamics associated with three floodplain land cover types were assessed at the Cedar River floodplain in southeast Iowa.
  • Liang, X.; Y.K. Zhang; and E. Schilling. “Analytical Solutions for Two-dimensional Groundwater Flow with Subsurface Drainage Tiles,” Journal of Hydrology, 521:556–564, 2015. Summary: Analytical solutions for groundwater level and discharge were derived and used to compare hydrologic conditions in a system with and without tile (natural drainage).
  • Liang, X.; Y.K.Zhang; and E. Schilling. “Temporal Variation of Groundwater Level in Heterogeneous Bounded Aquifer,” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 1–8, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s00477-014-0990-4. Summary: In this study, analytical solutions for the variance and covariance of groundwater level were derived with nonstationary spectral analyses and superposition principle.
  • Schilling, K.E.; R. Anderson; C. Alexander; D. Peate; and J. Dorale. “Mining Unique Soft and Old Water within the Manson Impact Structure,” Hydrogeology Journal, 23:95–103, 2015. Summary: This study reported on groundwater quality and age in bedrock wells located in and around the town of Manson, Iowa. The City of Manson lies near the center of the Manson Impact Structure, a 37-km diameter impact crater formed about 74 million years ago.
  • McLellan, E.; D. Robertson; K.E. Schilling; M. Tomer; J. Kostel; D. Smith; and K. King. “Reducing Nitrogen Export from the Corn Belt to the Gulf of Mexico: Agricultural Strategies for Remediating Hypoxia,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 51:263–289, 2015. Summary: Modeling results from SPARROW were used to evaluate nitrate load reduction practices to remediate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Schilling, K.E. and P. Jacobson. “Field Observation of Diurnal Dissolved Oxygen Fluctuations in Shallow Groundwater,” Groundwater, 53:493–497, 2015. Summary: In this study, we used an optical DO probe to measure rapid changes in concentration due to plant-groundwater interaction at an alluvial aquifer field site in Iowa.
  • Schilling, K.E. and P. Jacobson. “Temporal Variations in Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in a Shallow Floodplain,” River Research and Applications, 31:576–589, 2015. Summary: We examined daily DO concentrations in a shallow floodplain setting in Iowa to quantify fluctuations across two growing seasons and examine hydrologic controls on DO values.
  • Ikenberry, C.D.; M.L. Soupir; K.E. Schilling; C.S. Jones; and A. Seaman. “Nitrate-nitrogen Export: Magnitude and Pattern from Drainage Districts to Downstream River Basins,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 43:2024–2033, 2014. Summary: Hydrology and export of nitrate from three drainage districts over a five-year period were quantified and reported in this study.
  • Ettema, R. and Nakato, T. “John Fisher Kennedy — Student and Statesman of Hydraulic Engineering,” Journal of Hydraulic Research, 52, 6, pp. 731–743, October 2014. Summary: John Fisher Kennedy had a remarkably accomplished career in hydraulic engineering. Though alluvial river behavior was the hydraulics topic closest to his heart, Kennedy also made scholarly contributions in the areas of river thermal and ice processes, the design and operation of thermal- and hydro-power plants, and various hydraulic structures. We reflect upon Kennedy’s work and the qualities that made him a prominent engineer and educator.
  • Denniston, R.F.; Villarini, G.; Gonzales, A.N.; Wyrwoll, K.H.; Polyak, V.J.; Ummenhofer, C.C.; Lachniet, M.S.; Wannamaker, A.D.; Humphreys, W.F.; Woods, D.; and Cugley, J. “Extreme rainfall activity in the Australian tropics reflects changes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation over the last two millennia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2015 (in press). Summary: Researchers applied a novel technique to stalagmites from the Australian tropics to create a 2,200-year-long record of flood events that might also help predict future climate change.
  • Kim, D.; Muste, M.; and Merwade, V. “A GIS-based Relational Data Model for Multi-dimensional Representation of River Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics,” Environmental Modelling & Software, 65, 2015, pp. 79–93. Summary: This paper describes a new river data model (Arc River) that can be populated with both measured and simulated river data to facilitate descriptions of river features and processes using hydraulic/hydrologic terminology. Arc River is built in close connection with the existing Arc Hydro data model developed for water-related features to ensure the connection of the river characteristics with their floodplains and watersheds.
  • Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; and McLellan, E. “Agro-hydrologic Landscapes in the Upper Mississippi and Ohio River Basins,” Environmental Management, December 2014.
  • Villarini, G.Goska, R.; Smith, J.A.; and Vecchi, G.A. “North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones and U.S. Flooding,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(9), 1381–1388, 2014. Summary: This study examines the relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and flooding over the continental United States.
  • Vecchi, G.A.; Delworth, T.; Gudgel, R.; Kapnick, S.; Rosati, A.; Wittenberg, A.; Zeng, F.; Anderson, W.; Balaji, V.; Dixon, K.; Jia, L.; Kim, H.-S.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Msadek, R.; Stern, W.F.; Underwood, S.D.; Villarini, G.; Yang, X.; and Zhang, S. “On the Seasonal Forecasting of Regional Tropical Cyclone Activity,” Journal of Climate, 27, 7994–8016, 2014. Summary: This study examines the capability of a newly developed high-resolution global climate model to skillfully forecast seasonal tropical cyclone activity on spatial scales finer than basinwide, months and seasons in advance of the tropical cyclone season.
  • Davis, C.A.; Ward, A.S.; Burgin, A.J.; Loecke, T.D.; Riveros-Iregui, D.A.; Schnoebelen, D.J.; Just, C.L.; Thomas, S.A.; Weber, L.J.; and St. Clair, M.A. “Antecedent Moisture Controls on Stream Nitrate Flux in an Agricultural Watershed,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 43:1494–1503, 2014. Summary: This research investigated the effect of flood/drought periods on in-stream nitrate dynamics in an agricultural watershed. Results show significant differences in nitrate concentration and load attributed to variations in dominant flow pathways and water sources during wet/dry cycles.
  • Chaney, N.W.; Sheffield, J.; Villarini, G.; and Wood, E.F. “Development of a High-resolution Gridded Daily Meteorological Data Set over Sub-Saharan Africa: Spatial Analysis of Trends in Climate Extremes,” Journal of Climate, 27(15), pp. 5815–5835, 2014. Summary: It examines changes in climate extremes (temperature and precipitation) over the Sub-Saharan Africa during the period 1979–2005.
  • Nayak, M.A.; Villarini, G.; and Lavers, D.A. “On the Skill of Numerical Weather Prediction Models to Forecast Atmospheric Rivers over the Central United States,” Geophysical Research Letters, 41, pp. 4354–4362, 2014. Summary: This study focuses on the verification of the skill of five numerical weather prediction models in forecasting atmospheric river (AR) activity over the central United States. We find that these models generally forecast AR occurrences well at short lead times, with location errors increasing from one to three decimal degrees as the lead time increases to about one week. The skill (both in terms of occurrence and location errors) decreases with increasing lead time. Overall, these models are not skillful in forecasting AR activity over the central United States beyond a lead time of about seven days.
  • Ferguson, C.R. and Villarini, G.An Evaluation of the Statistical Homogeneity of the 20th-Century Reanalysis,” Climate Dynamics, 42(11-12), pp. 2841-2866, 2014. Summary: This article focuses on the evaluation of the 20th-century reanalysis at the global scale.
  • Muste, M.; Hauet, A.; Fujita, I.; Legout, C.; and Ho, H.-C. “Capabilities of Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry to Characterize Shallow Free-Surface Flows,” Advances in Water Resources, 70(2014), pp. 160–171, 2014.
  • Villarini, G.; Lavers, D.A.; Scoccimarro, E.; Zhao, M.; Wehner, M.F.; Vecchi, G.A.; Knutson, T.R.; and Reed, K.A. “Sensitivity of tropical cyclone rainfall to idealized global scale forcings,” Journal of Climate, 27(12), pp. 4622–4641, 2014. Summary: This paper uses a set of idealized high-resolution atmospheric model experiments produced as part of the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Hurricane Working Group activity to examine the response of rainfall associated with tropical cyclones to idealized global-scale perturbations: the doubling of CO2, uniform 2-K increases in global, and their combined impact.
  • Scoccimarro, E.; Gualdi, S.; Villarini, G.; Vecchi, G.A.; Zhao, M.; Walsh, K.; and Navarra, A. “Intense precipitation events associated with landfalling tropical cyclones in response to a warmer climate and increase CO2,” Journal of Climate, 27(12), pp. 4642–4654, 2014. Summary: This paper investigates possible changes in the intensity of rainfall events associated with tropical cyclones under idealized forcing scenarios, including a uniformly warmer climate, with a special focus on landfalling storm.
  • Wright, D.B.; Smith, J.A.; Villarini, G.; and Baeck, M.L. “Long-term high-resolution radar rainfall fields for urban hydrology,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 50(3), pp. 713–34, 2014. Summary: Explores the development of a long-term (10-year) high-resolution (15-minute and 1-km) radar-based rainfall dataset for Charlotte, N.C.
  • Goodwin, R.A.; Politano, M.Garvin, J.W.; Nestler, J.M.; Hay, D.; Anderson, J.J.; Weber, L.J.; Dimperio, E.; Smith, D.L.; and Timko, M. “Fish navigation of large dams emerges from their modulation of flow field experience.” Summary: To understand fish movement through hydropower dam environments, we combine a computational fluid dynamics model of the flow field at a dam and a behavioral model in which simulated fish adjust swim orientation and speed to modulate their experience to water acceleration and pressure (depth).
  • Villarini, G. and Strong, A. Roles of climate and agricultural practices in discharge changes in an agricultural watershed in Iowa.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 188, pp. 204-211, 2014.
  • Demir, I. and Krajewski, W.F. Towards an Integrated Flood Information System: Centralized data access, analysis, and visualization.” Environmental Modelling & Software, 50, pp. 77-84, 2013. Summary: This paper provides an overview of the design and capabilities of the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) which is developed as a platform to provide one-stop access to flood-related information.
  • Varmaghani, A. and Ghiassi, R. “Release Time Component of a Hydrograph.” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 19(2), pp. 444-447, 2014.
  • Varmaghani, A.An Analytical Formula for Potential Water Vapor in Atmosphere of Constant Lapse Rate.” Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 23(1), pp. 17-24, 2012.
  • Odgaard, A.J.; Lyons, T.C.; and Craig, A.J. “Baffle-Drop Structure Design Relationships.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 139(9), pp. 995-1002, 2013. Summary: The study is part of an effort to optimize the design of drop structures for transfer of storm and wastewater to deep underground tunnels. Drop structures and tunnels are used in large metropolitan areas, where space is limited and surface runoff is nearly 100 percent. The tunnels provide temporary storage of the combined wastewater before it is pumped to treatment plants and released to waterways. Air entrainment and release is a major design variable.
  • Schilling, K.E. and Drobney, P. “Restoration of prairie hydrology at the watershed scale: two decades of progress at Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge.” Land, 3, pp. 206-238, 2014. Summary: Understanding hydrologic processes at the watershed scale has been the focus of research at Neal Smith NWR for nearly two decades and the paper reports on the progress made on restoring key hydrologic components, including the water balance, stream network, hydrograph, groundwater levels and water quality.
  • Schilling, K.E. and Jacobson, P. “Effectiveness of perennial riparian buffers to reduce subsurface nutrient losses to incised streams in southern Iowa.” Catena, 114, pp. 140-148, 2014. Summary: Perennial vegetation lines many incised streams in Iowa and is assumed to provide a natural riparian buffer.  In this study we evaluated groundwater nutrient concentrations beneath four different riparian land covers and note that despite lower water tables and oxidizing conditions near the channel, the natural buffer vegetation reduces nutrient levels.
  • Palmer, J.A.; Schilling, K.E.; Isenhart, T.M.; and Schultz, R.C. “Streambank erosion rates and loads with a single watershed: bridging the gap between temporal and spatial scales.” Geomorphology, 209, pp. 66-78, 2014. Summary: The importance of streambank erosion is increasingly recognized and in this study we report on bank erosion patterns and rates monitored over a seven-year period in the Walnut Creek watershed.
  • Schilling, K.E.; McLellan, E.; and Bettis, E.A. “Letting wet spots be wet: restoring natural bioreactors in the dissected glacial landscape.” Environmental Management, 52, pp. 1440-1452, 2014. Summary: In this paper we argue that there is tremendous potential for nitrate-N reductions to occur throughout the dissected glaciated Midwest if we simply let naturally occurring wet spots on the landscape remain wet.
  • Schilling, K.E.; Jones, C.S.; and Seamon, A. “How paired is paired? Comparing nitrate concentrations in three Iowa drainage districts.” Journal of Environmental Quality, 42, pp. 1412-1421, 2013.
  • Li, D.; Chan, K.S.; and Schilling, K.E. Nitrate concentration trends in Iowa’s rivers, 1998 to 2012: What challenges await nutrient reduction initiatives?Journal of Environmental Quality, 42, pp. 1822-1828, 2013. Summary: In this study, we analyzed trends in nitrate-N concentrations in 60 ambient river sites in Iowa for the years 1998-2012 and found that while most (80%) did not show a significant trend, six sites in western Iowa show an increasing trend ranging from 0.15 to 0.33 mg/l per year.
  • Villarini, G., and Strong, A. “Roles of Climate and Agricultural Practices in Discharge Changes in an Agricultural Watershed in Iowa.” Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, 2014. Summary: This article focuses on the Raccoon River at Van Meter, Iowa, and on the entire discharge distribution, from minimum to maximum discharge and everything in between. It uses statistical models to explain the changes in discharge in terms of changes in rainfall and agricultural practices since 1927.
  • Lavers, D.A. and Villarini, G. Were Global Numerical Weather Prediction Systems Capable of Forecasting the Extreme Colorado Rainfall of 9–16 September 2013?Geophysical Research Letters, 40(24), pp. 6405–6410, 2013.
  • Czajkowski, J.; Villarini, G.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; and Smith, J.A. “Determining Tropical Cyclone Inland Flooding Loss on a Large Scale through a New Flood Peak Ratio-Based Methodology.” Environmental Research Letters, 4, 2013. Summary: Modeling of insurance claims associated with flooding from Hurricane Ivan.
  • Hajimirzaie, S.M. and Buchholz, J.H.J. Flow Dynamics in the Wakes of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wall-Mounted Obstacles.” Experiments in Fluids, 54, p. 1616, 2013. Summary: In a previous paper, we documented the influence of shape and relative submergence (the ratio of flow depth to obstacle height) on the mean flow around low-aspect-ratio wall-mounted semi-ellipsoids, which was chosen as a broad representative of a freshwater mussel projecting from a river bed. We examined the shedding characteristics and dynamics of the wake. A model of the arch vortex dynamics was proposed and confirmed to explain the observed streamwise vorticity distributions in the ellipsoid wakes.
  • Lavers, D.A. and Villarini, G.Atmospheric Rivers and Flooding over the Central United States.” Journal of Climate, 26, pp. 7829–7836, 2013. Summary: This paper examines the relation between atmospheric rivers (ARs) and flooding over the central United States during the period 1979-2011. ARs are regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapor transport in the lower troposphere. They play a large role in the global water cycle, and are associated with a large number of flood events over the central United States.
  • Knutson, T.R.; Sirutis, J.J.; Vecchi, G.A.; Garner, S.; Zhao, M.; Kim, H.-S.; Bender, M.; Tuleya, R.E.; Held, I.M.; and Villarini, G. Dynamical Downscaling Projections of Late 21st-Century Atlantic Hurricane Activity: CMIP3 and CMIP5 Model-Based Scenarios.” Journal of Climate, 26(17), pp. 6575–6590, 2013. Summary: In this work, we examine the robustness of potential changes in North Atlantic hurricane activity using 21st-century projections of Atlantic climate.
  • Villarini, G. and Smith, J.A. “Flooding in Texas: Examination of Temporal Changes and Impacts of Tropical Cyclones.” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 49(4), pp. 825–837, 2013. Summary: We examined annual maximum peak discharge time series from 62 stations in Texas with a record of at least 70 years. This work focuses on examination of changes in flood magnitude over the 20th and 21st centuries and on the role played by tropical cyclones as flood agent. The results of this research indicate that most of the changes in the flood peak records are associated with human modifications of the watersheds (e.g., river regulation) and that tropical cyclones are not associated with the largest flood events to the same degree that was found for the eastern United States.
  • Lavers, D.A. and Villarini, G.The Nexus Between Atmospheric Rivers and Extreme Precipitation across Europe.” Geophysical Research Letters, 40(12), pp. 3259–3264, 2013. Summary: Extreme precipitation and floods in Europe are a recurring natural hazard causing large socioeconomic damages. Here we investigate the connection between annual maxima (AM) daily precipitation at a pan-European scale and atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow filaments that convey the majority of the poleward water vapor transport within extratropical cyclones. We show that ARs are responsible for many AM precipitation days in Western Europe. The relationship is especially strong along the western European seaboard, with some areas having eight of their top 10 AM related to ARs. The effects of ARs are also seen as far inland as Germany and Poland. Southern Europe was most affected by ARs under negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) conditions, whereas northern Europe was more associated with a positive relationship between ARs and an NAO-type pattern. Our results suggest that ARs are critical in explaining the upper tail of the extreme precipitation distribution in Western Europe.
  • Villarini, G.; Scoccimarro, E.; and Gualdi, S. “Projections of Heavy Rainfall over the Central United States Based on CMIP5 Models.” Atmospheric Science Letters, 14(3), pp. 200–205, 2013. Summary: This study is about the examination of changes in extreme rainfall over the central United States. It is based on daily data obtained from 20 state-of-the-art coupled global climate models and one scenario. We examined the projected changes in the 90th and 99th percentiles of the daily rainfall distribution over the current century. The results point to an increase in extreme rainfall over large areas of the central United States.  Moreover, the comparison between the projected changes in the 90th and 99th percentiles points to stronger trend in the latter. This suggests that extreme rainfall is projected to become more extreme, consistent with the redistribution toward more intense rainfall observed in the observational record over the recent past.
  • Lavers, D.A.; Allan, R.P.; Villarini, G.; Lloyd-Huges, B.; Brayshaw, D.J.; and Wade, A.J. “Future Changes in Atmospheric Rivers and Their Implications for Winter Flooding in Britain.” Environmental Research Letters, 8(3), pp. 1–8, 2013.
  • Vecchi, G.A.; Msadek, R.; Anderson, W.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chang, T.; Delworth, T.; Dixon, K.; Gudgel, R.; Rosati, A.; Stern, W.; Villarini, G.; Wittenberg, A.; Yang, X.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.; and Zhang, S. “Multi-Year Predictions of North Atlantic Hurricane Frequency: Promise and Limitations.” Journal of Climate, 26(15), pp. 5337–5357, 2013. Summary: This paper is about multi-year predictability of North Atlantic hurricanes. While there is encouraging retrospective forecast skill, it highlights that care should be used in interpreting the results because of the short record, climate shifts, and changes in the observing system.
  • Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.R.; Hirsch, R.; Kaiser, D.P.; Brooks, H.; Diffenbaugh, N.S.; Dole, R.M.; Giovannettone, J.P.; Guirguis, J.; Karl, T.R.; Katz, R.W.; Kunkel, K.; Lettenmaier, D.; McCabe, G.J.; Paciorek, C.J.; Ryberg, K.R.; Schubert, S.; Silva, V.B.S.; Stewart, B.C.; Vecchia, A.V.; Villarini, G.; Vose, R.S.; Walsh, J.; Wehner, M.; Wolock, D.; Wolter, K.; Woodhouse, C.A.; and Wuebbles, D. “Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(6), pp. 821-834, 2013. Summary: Provides a summary of the state of knowledge and understanding of long-term changes in heat and cold waves, floods, and droughts in the United States.
  • Smith, B.K.; Smith, J.A.; Baeck, M.L.; Villarini, G.; and Wright, D.B. “The Spectrum of Storm Event Hydrologic Response in Urban Watersheds.” Water Resources Research, 49(5), pp. 2649-2663, 2013. Summary: The study examines flood-producing rainfall properties and storm event hydrologic response for nine small watersheds in the Baltimore region including seven urbanized basins, a forested basin, and an agricultural basin. We find expected contrasts in flood peak distributions and storm event runoff production between the urban and nonurban watersheds, but we also find a spectrum of storm event hydrologic response among the urban watersheds.
  • Long, Y.; Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Tian, F.; and Hu, H. “Changes in Seasonal Maximum Daily Precipitation in China over the Period 1961–2006.” International Journal of Climatology, 33(7), pp. 1646–1657, 2013. Summary: Daily rainfall data from 485 stations in China over the period 1961–2006 are used to examine changes in seasonal extreme rainfall. We focus on the temporal changes in their distribution, together with examination of the dependence of seasonal extreme rainfall on elevation.
  • Villarini, G. and Vecchi, G.A. “Multi-Season Lead Forecast of the North Atlantic Power Dissipation Index (PDI) and Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE).” Journal of Climate, 26, 11, pp. 3631–3643, 2013. Summary: This study focuses on the seasonally-integrated North Atlantic Power Dissipation Index (PDI) and the Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE). These are concise metrics routinely used to assess tropical storm activity by accounting for storm frequency, intensity, and duration. We have developed a hybrid statistical-dynamical seasonal forecasting system for North Atlantic PDI and ACE over the period 1982–2011, and we have shown that it is skillful in making forecasts from November of the previous year. That is, skillful predictions of the seasonally integrated North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the coming season could be made even while the current one is still underway.
  • Villarini, G. and Vecchi, G.A. “Projected Increases in North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity from CMIP5 Models.” Journal of Climate, 26(10), pp. 3231–3240, 2013. Summary: This study focuses on the projections in North Atlantic Power Dissipation Index (PDI), using output from 17 state-of-the-art global climate models and three radiative forcing scenarios. PDI is a metric accounting for intensity, frequency, and duration of tropical cyclones. Overall, we find that North Atlantic PDI is projected to increase with respect to the 1986–2005 period across all scenarios. The difference between the PDI projections and those of the number of North Atlantic tropical cyclones, which are not projected to increase significantly, indicates an intensification of North Atlantic tropical cyclones in response to both greenhouse gas increases and aerosol changes over the current century.
  • Ho, H-C.; Muste, M.; and Ettema, R. “Sediment Self-cleaning Multi-box Culverts.” Journal of Hydraulic Research, 51(1), pp. 92-101, 2013. Summary: Filed investigations of culvert sites and surveys of road maintenance personnel reveal that sedimentation is a widespread problem for multi-box culverts in Iowa and neighboring U.S. Midwest states. The study presents design considerations for mitigating the sedimentation at multi-box culverts using the sediment transport capacity of culvert-approach flow.
  • Rowe, S.T. and Villarini, G. Flooding associated with predecessor rain events over the Midwest United States.” Environmental Research Letters, 8, pp. 1-5, 2013. Summary: This article examines the severity and extent of flooding associated with six predecessor rain events (PREs) over the central United States. PREs are areas of heavy rainfall that occur about 1000 km ahead of landfalling tropical cyclones. We show that heavy rainfall and flooding associated with PREs occur well inland in non-tropical cyclone-prone locations. PREs can trigger annual maximum peak discharge at numerous stream gauge stations, causing flooding on the order of and in excess of the 10-year flood. Many large Midwestern cities (e.g., Chicago, Detroit) are especially susceptible to these events.
  • Wright, D.B.; Smith, J.A; Villarini, G.; and Baeck, M.L. “Estimating the Frequency of Extreme Rainfall Using Weather Radar and Stochastic Storm Transposition.” Journal of Hydrology, 488, pp. 150–165, 2013. Summary: This study presents an alternate framework to conventional design storms for rainfall frequency analysis. We demonstrate that extreme rainfall can vary substantially in time and in space, with potentially important flood risk implications that cannot be assessed using conventional techniques.
  • Villarini, G. and Smith, J.A. “Spatial and Temporal Variability of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over the Continental U.S. during the Period 1995–2010,” Atmospheric Research, 124, pp. 137–148, 2013. Summary: We examined the spatial and temporal variability of major lightning days over the continental United States from 1995–2010. The central United States exhibits statistically significant increasing trends, while we see a general tendency toward decreasing trends over the Rocky Mountains. These results raise the question of whether the observed changes in lightning activity during the recent years are related to natural or human-induced changes in the climate system, and/or to inhomogeneities in the observational network.
  • Stanier, C.O.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baeck, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.R.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S.R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; and Spak, S.Overview of the LADCO Winter Nitrate Study: Hourly Ammonia, Nitric Acid, and PM2.5 Composition at an Urban and Rural Site Pair During PM2.5 Episodes in the U.S. Great Lakes Region,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, pp. 1–12, 2012.
  • Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Vitolo, R.; and Stephenson, D.B. “On the Temporal Clustering of U.S. Floods and Its Relationship to Climate Teleconnection Patterns.” International Journal of Climatology, 33(3), pp. 629–640, 2013. Summary: This article examines whether the occurrence of flood events should be considered independently of each other, or clustered in time. If floods cluster, then the fact that one event has occurred changes the chances of another event to occur later. The authors analyzed data from 41 stream gauge stations in Iowa, with discharge records covering the period 1950–2009. The results point to clustering as an important element of the analysis of flood occurrence. The authors discuss the possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed clustered behavior in terms of climate variability and land-surface processes.
  • Lyons, T.Craig, A.; and Weber, L.J. “Experimental Model Study for the Design of a Spillway Gate to Reduce TDG Production at a Hydropower Dam.” Hydrovision, 2013.
  • Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Baeck, B.K.; and Sturdevant-Rees, P. “Hydrologic Analyses of the 17–18 July 1996 Flood in Chicago and the Role of Urbanization.” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 18(2), pp. 250–259, 2013. Summary: This study focuses on the July 17–18, 1996 event that caused record rainfall in northeastern Illinois. We examine the capability of the Davenport weather radar to estimate heavy rainfall at far range, and perform a series of hydrologic analyses to understand the role of land use/land cover and rainfall variability for such an extreme event. The results of this study indicate that urbanization played a major roles in the hydrologic response for the study watersheds.
  • Villarini, G. and Vecchi, G.A. “Multi-Season Lead Forecast of the North Atlantic Power Dissipation Index (PDI) and Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE).” Journal of Climate, 2012. Summary: Here we focus on the Power Dissipation Index (PDI) and the Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE). These are concise metrics routinely used to assess tropical storm activity by accounting for storm frequency, intensity and duration. We have developed a hybrid statistical-dynamical seasonal forecasting system for North Atlantic PDI and ACE over the period 1982–2011, and showed that it is skillful at making forecasts from November of the previous year. That is, skillful predictions of the seasonally integrated North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the coming season could be made even while the current season is still underway.
  • Villarini, G. and Vecchi, G.A. “Projected Increases in North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity from CMIP5 Models.” Journal of Climate, 2012. Summary: Here we focus on the projections in North Atlantic PDI using output from 17 state-of-the-art global climate models and three radiative forcing scenarios. Overall, we find that North Atlantic PDI is projected to increase with respect to the 1986–2005 period across all scenarios. The difference between the PDI projections and those of the number of North Atlantic tropical cyclones, which are not projected to increase significantly, indicates an intensification of North Atlantic tropical cyclones in response to both greenhouse gas increases and aerosol changes over the current century.
  • Zhai, G.Lehmler, H.-J.; and Schnoor, J.L. Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants.” Environmental Science & Technology, 47, pp. 557−562, 2013.
  • Zhai, G.; Lehmler, H-J.; and Schnoor, J.L. “Inhibition of Cytochromes P450 and the Hydroxylation of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar.” Environmental Science & Technology, 2013.
  • Rim, Y.; McPherson, D.D.; Chandran, K.B.; and Kim, H. “The Effect of Patient-Specific Annular Motion on Dynamic Simulation of Mitral Valve Function.” Journal of Biomechanics, 2013.
  • Chandran, K.B. and Vigmostad, S. “Patient-Specific Bicuspid Valve Dynamics and Valvular and Ascending Aortic Pathology: An Overview of Methods and Challenges.” Journal of Biomechanics, 46, pp. 208–216, 2013.
  • Sugumaran, R. and Thomas, J. Semi-Analytical Model for the Multi-Temporal Prediction of Chlorophyll-a in an Iowa Lake Using Hyperion Data.” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 78(12), pp. 1253–1260, 2012. Summary: The aim of this study was to use an analytical approach to monitor water quality in an Iowa lake using multi-temporal Hyperion satellite imagery.
Last modified on March 15th, 2017
Posted on January 29th, 2013

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